Gazebo is available to install on other Linux distributions different than Ubuntu (Ubuntu install instructions are hosted in a different tutorial). Linux distributions providing gazebo packages: Debian, Fedora, Arch and Gentoo.
Gazebo in Debian is available as an official package in Debian Sid (the Gazebo team is the official maintainer in Debian) which usually hosts the latest gazebo release.
sudo apt-get install gazebo5 # For developers that works on top of Gazebo, one extra package sudo apt-get install libgazebo5-dev
Gazebo in Fedora is available as an official package (the maintainer is Rich Mattes). Depending on the Fedora version, the version of Gazebo available is different:
Gazebo in Arch is currently in the AUR: Arch User Repository (Benjamin Chrétien is the maintainer). This means that it is not in the official package repositories and users need to compile it from source. The easiest way to install it is to use an AUR helper, such as yaourt or packer:
yaourt -S gazebo # or sudo packer -S gazebo
Some use flags are available to customize the package, use equery (from gentoolkit) to know more about the optional support:
emerge --ask app-portage/gentoolkit equery uses gazebo -a
Install Gazebo on stable branch
echo "sci-electronics/gazebo" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords emerge gazebo
Install Gazebo on testing branch
If you know of any other Linux distribution supporting Gazebo installation, feel free to create an issue to expand this tutorial.